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      1. C.P: Mr. Wu
        F T: 0512-66956915
        FDM: 0512-66930668-9602
        FAX: 0512-66930698-9602
        EMAIL: wuxiaomin@szyongjie-motor.com

        Motor basic knowledge Q & A (commonly known as the motor of 100,000 why)

        Author:1,2,3,4,5 Comefrom: Date:2017-4-7 10:17:18 Hits:64

        What is the motor?

        A: The motor is to convert the battery power into mechanical energy, driving the electric car wheel rotation parts.

        What is the winding?

        A: armature winding is the core of the DC motor, copper enameled wire wound coil. When the armature winding in the motor's magnetic field will produce electromotive force.

        What is magnetic field?

        A: in the permanent magnet or current around the force field and where the magnetic force can reach the scope of the role of space or magnetic force.

        What is the magnetic field strength?

        A: Define an infinite conductor with an amperes current of 1/2 meters away from the conductor. The magnetic field strength is 1A / m (ampere / m, SI). In the CGS unit (cm-g-sec) In order to commemorate Oster's contribution to electromagnetics, the infinite long conductor with an amps of 1 amps is defined as a magnetic field strength of 10e (Oersted) at a distance of 0.2 cm from the conductor, 10e = 1 / 4.103 / m, Strength is usually expressed in H.

        What is Ampere?

        A: Hold the wire with your right hand, so that the direction of the straight thumb with the direction of the same, then the direction of the four fingers refers to the direction of the magnetic induction line around the direction.

        What is magnetic flux?

        A: magnetic flux is also called magnetic flux: located in the uniform magnetic field has a vertical direction with the magnetic field, the magnetic field of magnetic induction intensity B, plane area S, we define the magnetic induction B and area S product, called through The magnetic flux of this face.

        What is the stator?

        A: Brush or brushless motor work does not turn part. Wheel-type brushless or brushless gear motor shaft is called the stator, this motor can be called the stator motor.

        What is a rotor?

        A: Brush or brushless motor when working part of the rotation. Wheel-type brush or brushless toothless motor shell called the rotor, this motor can be called outside the rotor motor.

        What is carbon brush?

        A: brush inside the motor inside the surface of the inverter, the motor rotation, the power through the inverter to the coil, because its main component is carbon, called the carbon brush, it is easy to wear. Should be regularly replaced and clean up the carbon.

        What is the brush grip?

        A: In the brush inside the motor to hold and keep the carbon brush position of the mechanical guide.

        What is the commutator?

        A: Brush inside the motor, with the insulation of the strip metal surface, with the motor rotor rotation, the strip of metal alternately touch the positive and negative brush to achieve the motor coil current direction of the positive and negative alternately to complete the brush motor coil Commutation.

        What is phase sequence?

        A: The order of the brushless motor coils.

        What is magnet?

        A: Generally used to call the high magnetic field strength of the magnetic material, electric vehicle motors are used neodymium iron 錋 rare earth magnet.

        What is electromotive force?

        A: The motor rotor by cutting the magnetic field lines generated, the direction of the opposite with the external power supply, so called back EMF.

        What is a brush motor?

        A: When the motor is working, the coil and the commutator are rotated, the magnet and the carbon brush do not turn, and the alternation of the coil current direction is done by the commutator and the brush which rotates with the motor. In the electric car industry brush motor is divided into high-speed brush motor and low-speed brush motor. Brush motor and brushless motor there are many differences, from the word can be seen brush motor has a carbon brush, brushless motor without carbon brush

        What is low speed brush motor? What are the characteristics?

        A: In the electric car industry, the low-speed brush motor is the wheel-type low-speed high-torque gearless brushless DC motor, the rotor rotor is the relative speed of the wheel speed. The magnet on the stator is 5 to 7 pairs, and the number of slots of the rotor armature is 39-57. As the armature winding fixed in the wheel housing, with the rotation of the shell, heat easily distributed. The rotating shell is woven with 36 spokes, more favorable heat conduction.

        What is the characteristics of a brush motor?

        A: Brush motor because there are brushes, the main hidden danger is "brush wear", the user should be noted that the brush motor is divided into two kinds of teeth and teeth. At present, many manufacturers use brush motor, it is a high-speed motor, the so-called "teeth" is through the gear reduction mechanism, the motor speed down (due to GB requirements of electric vehicles speed shall not exceed 20 km, so the motor speed should be 170 r / min or so). Because it is high-speed motor through gear reduction, which is characterized by the start when the rider feel strong, and climbing ability. But the electric wheel is closed, but in the factory filled with a lubricant, the user is difficult to carry out daily maintenance, and the gear itself has mechanical wear, about a year due to lack of lubrication caused by increased gear wear, noise increases, the use of current Increased, affecting motor and battery life.

        What is brushless motor?

        A: As the controller provides different current direction of the DC, to reach the motor inside the coil current direction of the alternating changes. There is no brush and commutator between the rotor and the stator of the brushless motor.

        ★ How does motor achieve commutation?

        A: brushless or brush motor in the rotation, the motor inside the coil power direction needs to change alternately, so as to achieve continuous rotation of the motor. Brush motor commutation by the commutator and brush together to complete, brushless motor by the controller to complete.

        What is missing?

        A: brushless motor or brushless controller in the three-phase circuit, there is a phase can not work. Phase loss phase and phase loss. The performance of the motor jitter can not work, or the rotation is weak and noisy. The controller is easy to burn in the absence of the state.

        ★ What are the common types of motors?

        A: The common motor are: a brush with a hub motor, brushless gear motor, brushless gear motor, brushless gearless motor, side hanging motor.

        ★ How is the distinction between the type of motor is high and low speed motor?

        A: A brush with a hub motor, brushless gear motor is a high-speed motor;

           B Brushless gear motor, brushless gearless motor is low speed motor.

        ★ How is the power of the motor defined?

        A: The motor power is the motor output of the mechanical energy and power provided by the ratio of electricity.

        ★ Why choose the power of the motor? What is the significance of choosing motor power?

        A: The choice of motor rated power is a very important and complicated problem. Load, if the motor rated power is too large, the motor is often at light load operation, the motor itself capacity is not fully play, into a "big horse car", while the motor running inefficient, poor performance, will increase Operating costs. In turn, the motor rated power requirements are small, that is, "small horse cart", the motor current exceeds the rated current, the motor wear and tear increase, low efficiency, it is important to affect the life of the motor, even if the overload , The motor life will be reduced more; overload more, will damage the insulation properties of electrical insulation and even burned. Of course, the motor rated power is small, you may simply can not drag the load, the motor will be a long time in the boot state and overheating damage. So should be in strict accordance with the operation of electric vehicles selected motor rated power.

        ★ general brushless DC motor why there are three Hall?

        A: To put it simply, the DC brushless motor must have a certain angle between the magnetic field of the stator coil and the magnetic field of the rotor permanent magnet in order to be able to rotate. Rotor rotation process is the direction of the rotor magnetic field changes in order to make the two magnetic field angle, to a certain extent, the stator coil magnetic field direction must be changed. So how do you know to change the direction of the stator magnetic field? It depends on the three Hall of the. It can be said that the three Halls have the task of telling the controller when to change the direction of the current.

        What is the approximate range of power consumption of brushless motor Hall?

        A: Brushless motor Hall power consumption range is roughly 6m A-20m A range.

        ★ general motor in the high temperature to work properly? How much can the motor withstand the maximum temperature?

        A: If the measured motor cover temperature exceeds the ambient temperature of 25 degrees or more, indicating that the motor temperature has exceeded the normal range, the general motor temperature should be below 20 degrees. General motor coil is made of enameled wire, and enameled wire in the temperature above 150 degrees when the film will be because of the high temperature and fall off, resulting in short circuit coil. When the coil temperature is above 150 degrees, the temperature of the motor housing is about 100 degrees, so the maximum temperature of the motor is 100 degrees if the temperature of the housing is based.

        ★ The temperature of the motor should be below 20 degrees Celsius, that is, the temperature of the motor cover should exceed the ambient temperature should be less than 20 degrees Celsius, but what is the reason why the motor heat is more than 20 degrees Celsius?

        A: The direct cause of motor heat is due to the large current caused. Generally may be short-circuit or open circuit, magnet demagnetization or low efficiency of the motor caused by the normal situation is the motor for a long time high current operation.

        What causes the motor to heat up? What is the process?

        A: When the motor is running, the motor has a power loss and eventually becomes heat, which increases the temperature of the motor, exceeding the ambient temperature. The motor temperature is higher than the ambient temperature is called the temperature rise. Once the temperature, the motor will be to the surrounding heat; the higher the temperature, the faster heat. When the heat emitted by the unit time is equal to the heat released, the motor temperature is no longer increased, while maintaining a stable temperature, that is, in the heat and heat balance of the state.

        ★ What is the average click on the allowable temperature rise? What is the maximum temperature of the motor that affects the motor? How is it defined?

        A: When the motor load is running, from the role as far as possible to play, the load is the greater the output power the better (if not consider the mechanical strength). But the greater the output power, the greater the power loss, the higher the temperature. We know that the coolest thing in the motor is the insulation material, such as enameled wire. Insulation material temperature has a limit, in this limit, the insulation of the physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and other aspects of performance are very stable, its working life is generally about 20 years. Beyond this limit, the life of insulating materials will be shortened, or even burned. This temperature limit, called the permissible temperature of the insulating material. The permissible temperature of the insulating material is the permissible temperature of the motor; the life of the insulating material is generally the life of the motor.

        Ambient temperature varies with time and place, the design of the motor when the provisions of 40 degrees Celsius for our standard ambient temperature. So the insulation material or motor to allow the temperature minus 40 degrees Celsius is to allow the temperature rise,

        Different insulation materials to allow the temperature is not the same, according to the allowable temperature level, the motor commonly used insulating material for the A, E, B, F, H five. According to the ambient temperature of 40 degrees Celsius, these five kinds of insulation materials and its allowable temperature and allow the temperature rise as shown in the following table:

        Picture 1.0.png

        ★ How to measure the phase angle of brushless motor?

        A: turn on the controller power supply, the controller to the Hall element power supply, you can detect the brushless motor phase angle. The method is as follows: with the universal table +20 V DC voltage file, and the red pen then +5 V line, black pen were measured three lead high and low voltage, according to 60 degrees and 120 degrees motor commutation table control can be.

        ★ why any one of the DC brushless controller and brushless DC motor can not be connected to the normal rotation up? Why DC brushless will have inverted phase say?

        A: In general, brushless DC motor in the actual movement is such a process: the motor rotation ---- rotor magnetic field direction change ---- when the stator magnetic field direction and the direction of the rotor magnetic field angle to 60 degrees electrical angle - --- Hall signal change ---- phase current direction change ---- stator magnetic field forward 60 degrees across the electrical angle ---- stator magnetic field direction and the direction of the rotor magnetic field angle of 120 degrees electrical angle --- - The motor continues to rotate. So that we understand that Hall has six correct states. When a particular Hall tells the controller, the controller has a specific phase output status. So the inverted phase sequence is to complete such a task, that is, the electrical angle of the stator is always in a direction to 60 degrees electrical angle step.

        ★ If the 60 degree brushless controller with 120 degrees brushless motor will be what the situation? What about it?

        A: The controller is an intelligent brushless controller can automatically identify the 60-degree motor or 120-degree motor, which can be compatible with two kinds of motor, Making maintenance easier to replace.

        ★ DC brushless controller and brushless DC motor how can the correct phase sequence?

        A: The first step to ensure that the Hall line of the power cord and the ground line and the controller corresponding to the line plug, and three motor Hall line and three motor lines on the controller of a total of 36, The simple and stupid way is to test each state one by one. When the exchange can be carried out without electricity, but must be careful, but also have a certain order. Pay attention to each twist not too much, if the motor rotation is not smooth, then this state is wrong, turn the twist too much damage to the controller, if the reverse of the situation, know the controller phase sequence Of the case is the controller Hall line a, c swap, click line A phase and B swap, you can turn forward. Finally verify that the correct method is normal when the high current is running.

        ★ how to use 120 degrees brushless controller control 60 degrees motor?

        A: In the brushless motor Hall signal line b and the controller sampling signal line between the direction of the line can be added.

        ★ brush high-speed motor and brush low-speed motor What is the difference between intuitive?

        A: A high-speed motor has a clutch, to a direction to easy, to another direction to run over; low-speed motor two-way wings as easy.

          B. High-speed motor car when the noise is large, low-speed motor rotation noise is small. Experienced people are easily identified by ear.

        What is the rated operating status of the motor?

        A: When the motor is running, if the physical quantities are the same as its rated value, it is called the rated operating state, working in the rated operating state, the motor can run reliably, and has the best overall performance.

        ★ How is the rated torque of the motor calculated?

        A: The rated torque output on the click axis can be expressed by T2n, which is the rated mechanical power rating divided by the transfer speed of the rated value, that is, T2n = Pn where Pn units are W, Nn units r / min , T2n unit is NM, if PNM unit with KN, coefficient 9.55 to 9550.

        It can be concluded that if the motor rated power equal conditions, the motor speed is lower, the greater the torque.

        ★ motor starting current is how to define?

        A: The general requirements of the motor starting current can not exceed its rated current of 2 to 5 times, which is why the controller for the current flow protection is an important reason.

        ★ Why is the motor speed on the market getting higher and higher? And what impact?

        A: ★ supplier speed can reduce the cost, the same low-speed click, the speed of the coil turns less, but also save the silicon steel, the number of magnets is also less, the purchaser that high-speed like.

           ★ rated speed work, its power unchanged, but in the low-speed area when the efficiency was significantly lower, that is, start weakness.

           ★ low efficiency, need to start with a large current, riding current is also large, the controller of the current limit requirements, the battery is not good.

        ★ how to abnormal motor fever how maintenance?

        A: The maintenance method is generally to replace the motor, or maintenance warranty.

        ★ Motor no-load current is greater than reference table when the limit data indicate motor

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